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Rediculous Religion & problems with science


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Nearly all of us here in the ex-Christian forum know the countless contradicting problems associated with the belief in Christianity and all Religions in general, past and present.  One of the main problems with Christianity is that little or none of the Christian bible can be corroborated by history, and some of it seems to be contradicted by history, and other parts of it are obviously false, ridiculous, and still other parts of the Bible are logically indefensible based upon scientific knowledge.


But how about science? Is it logical and defensible? Many consider science theory science, but it’s definitely not. Science theories are conclusions based upon observations and testing , conclusions made by some scientists. There are always competing theories in science. General consensus theory is also called mainstream theory. Science, instead of being a theory, is the method used in science to study the natural world, to first speculate and then consider possibilities called hypothesis. Hypotheses must involve observations and testing, to propose reasonable conclusions.  But do scientists always use to same method to form hypotheses and theory? The answer is no. There are several scientific methods used and some have been criticized by many as not being adequate to bring about logical hypothesis, conclusions, or theory. What are these different methods?


The Scientific Method: Most believe that all approaches by scientist to forming hypothesis and theory involve the Scientific Method. The problem is that there is no consensus opinion as to what the scientific method really is. Instead two other methods are often used instead, explained below, where practitioners believe they are using and following the Scientific Method when they are not.


The scientific method is a rational method that requires a logical thought process necessary to decipher facts and truths. This method seeks to answer both the ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions related to theory development and to the theory itself. The other methods of theory development, explained below, does not require logic as being necessary for theory development or formation. One can know which theories lack logic by realizing that such theories cannot answer any of the ‘why’ related questions of the theory.

Of course most realize that even when a theory or hypothesis is developed solely based upon the Scientific Method, is well tested and can answer the why questions, it can still be wrong and eventually proven so.


Within the complex set of activities that comprise the scientific method, three essential activities can be recognized but in no particular order. Observations and testing, concept formation and analysis, and mathematical analysis. Generally in science today, the first and last activities are well-known and highly valued, but in the last century or so the middle activity of concept formation and analysis has often been less-valued concerning theory formation, similar to the Engineering Method described below.


The Engineering Method: The second Method of science used to form hypothesis and then theory is called the Engineering Method. Like the Scientific Method, the Engineering Method is also a systematic approach used to reach a desired outcome or solution to a scientific problem. It has often been used to develop a scientific theory. Most theories in modern physics were developed based upon the Engineering method rather than the Scientific Method. But there are also disadvantages of this method.

The main disadvantage of this method of theory development is that a solid concept hypothesis is  not needed. A concept hypothesis is a logical explanation of what one is trying to accomplish and what you are trying to logically explain. Without this hypothesis as a guide to your research you end up with an unexplainable theory. A prime example of theory formed by this method is Quantum Mechanics, with its disadvantages concerning its lack of logic. The father of classical physics that first used this method was Isaac Newton with his theory of pulling gravity. When he was asked how matter caused this pulling force, Newton said in Latin, non fingo hypothesis, I don’t propose hypothesis. To his credit Newton later proposed a model of pushing gravity to explain his inverse square law of gravity, a hypothesis that very few know of today.


The Mathematics first Method: 


The Mathematics-First Method is not only that mathematics is the first operation performed after observations, but in this method mathematics is considered of primary, and of over-riding importance – more than logic. The method is to consider the possible physics that may be involved, then the body of knowledge you wish to incorporate on a broader scale if you believe there are no errors or contradictions within the hypothesis to start with. Look for the mathematical commonalities within the whole of it then develop the theoretical physics necessary to incorporate the body of knowledge. This is the mathematics-first method. This was the approach of String Theories. The advantages of this method are that you do not necessarily have to consider observed reality, only a different reality that you believe exists. A prime example of theory created by this method was String Theory, where no predictions were ever made.


Classical Scientific Method.  All three essential aspects of the present day Scientific Method can be readily recognized in the works of the quintessential scientist Galileo Galilee,  His use of the Scientific Method illustrates how conceptual formation and analysis in the first place, can be used to develop concept meaning, formation, and initial hypotheses.  The purpose of this Method is to expose potential conceptual problems in a model, reveal unknown or unacknowledged assumptions and steps in arguments, and to evaluate the consistency of new or existing hypothetical and theoretical proposals first conceived by speculation and concept formation.  Because of his theory formation method and his use and defining of science, many consider Galileo the father of the modern day Scientific Method.


https://papers.pantheory.org/Theory-of-Everything.pdf         (page 4,5,6,7)


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